In this easy to read book, Kenneth Bowser shows the western astrologer how to In An Introduction to Western Sidereal Astrology, Kenneth Bowser presents.
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For this reason, some astrologers have proposed an improved version of this ayanamsha, the so-called "True Chitra Paksha Ayanamsha". This ayanamsha is considered to be a correction of the Lahiri ayanamsha. It must be noted, however, that this work does not talk about ayanamsha, but only mentions the positions of some fixed stars in a sidereal zodiac. In its present form, the Suryasiddhanta was composed near the year CE. Older versions of it are not extant, but are referred to in other texts.
In polar projection, the projection line is not perpendicular to the ecliptic but is drawn through the celestial north pole and the star. Since the above-mentioned Spica-based ayanamshas Lahiri und True Chitra are projected on the ecliptic in a right angle, strictly speaking they cannot be justified on the basis of the Suryasiddhanta.
For this reason, this ayanamsha should not be considered very reliable either. The ayanamsha used by the astrologer K. Krishnamurti is close to the Lahiri ayanamsha and the True Chitra Ayanamsha. Since ancient Indian astronomers were not aware of the galactic centre, this coincidence seems to be rather accidental.
From a philosophical point of view, it probably makes a lot more sense to fix the sidereal zodiac at the galactic centre than at some random fixed star. Since all visible stars circle around the galactic centre, it could be called the "central star" of our galaxy.taiglamildiri.ga/feria-del-manga-valencia.php
The galactic centre is also millions of times heavier than any star. Two different ayanamshas can be derived from this information. With the True Revati Ayanamsha , the star is assumed at this ecliptic position in rectangular projection. With the Suryasiddhanta Revati Ayanamsha , on the other hand, the zodiac is defined in such a way that Revati had the same position in polar ecliptic projection in the year CE. The latter seems to be more appropriate because the Suryasiddhanta uses polar projection. However, it must be noted that the position of Revati as given in the Suryasiddhanta is incompatible with the positions of Spica and other stars as given in the same work.
Unfortunately, the star positions of the Suryasiddhanta do not allow us to determine the underlying ayanamsha. This ayanamsha is named after two authors called Usha and Shashi. The galactic centre is a massive black hole in the centre of the Milky Way. Our Sun and all visible stars circle around it. This ayanamsha was introduced in by the American astrologer Ernst Wilhelm. The galactic centre is projected on the ecliptic in polar projection, i.
The point at which this great circle cuts the ecliptic is defined as the middle of the nakshatra Mula. This ayanamsha is very close to the Usha-Shashi ayanamsha and the Revati ayanamshas. This ayanamsha is a little less stable than the other ayanamshas. Since polar projection is used, it is a little bit influenced by general precession.
However, polar projection was actually the method used by the Suryasiddhanta. It must be noted that Wilhelm uses this ayanamsha only for the definition of the nakshatra circle not for the zodiac, because he uses the tropical zodiac combined with sidereal nakshatras. More information on this ayanamsha is found in the General Documentation of the Swiss Ephemeris. This ayanamsha, which is close to the Raman ayanamsha, was proposed by the German-Spanish astrologer Rafael Gil Brand Rafael Gil Brand, Himmlische Matrix.
This ayanamsha was used by the great Indian astrologer Bangalore Venkata Raman Although this ayanamsha is very close to the galactic ayanamsha of Gil Brand, Raman apparently did not think of the possibility to define the zodiac using the galactic centre. See also: B.
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Raman, Hindu Predictive Astrology , pp. Here, the year CE is given as the year of zero ayanamsha. This ayanamsha was allegedly recommended by Swami Shri Yukteshwar Giri We have taken over its definition from Graham Dawson. However, the definition given by Yukteshwar himself in the introduction of his work The Holy Science is a confusing.
At the same time he believed that this was the distance of the spring equinox from the star Revati, which he put at the initial point of Aries. Moreover, Yukteshwar is wrong in assigning the above-mentioned ayanamsha value to the year ; in reality it applies to Since Yukteshwar's precession rate is wrong by 4" per year, astro. In , the difference amounts to 6'40".
Although this ayanamsha differs only a few arc seconds from the galactic ayanamsha of Gil Brand, Yukteshwar obviously did not intend to define the zodiac using the galactic centre. He actually intended a Revati-oriented ayanamsha, but committed the above-mentioned errors in his calculation. This ayanamsha was proposed by the Indian astrologer P. Narasimha Rao, the author of the astrological software Jagannatha Hora.
He argues that the human existence has its root in the heart, which corresponds to the sign of Cancer. Narasimha Rao, "Introducing Pushya-paksha Ayanamsa" This ayanamsha ist derived from ancient Indian time cycles and astronomical information given in the Mahabharata. Its author, Mr. Sunil Sheoran, therefore calls this ayanamsha "Vedic". Essential in Sheoran's argumentation is the assumption that the two Mahabharatan solar eclipses that were observed from Kurukshetra and Dvaraka were 18 years apart, not 36 years as is taught by tradition and the Mahabharata itself.
From the mentioned eclipse pair and historical considerations, he derives that the Mahabharata war must have taken place in the year BCE. Then he dates the beginning of the last Manvantara on the winter solstice BCE. Unfortunately, there are serious problems at least in Sheoran linguistic argumentation.
Unfortunately, Sanskrit dictionaries and grammar do not allow such translations. This ayanamsha was calculated in by Peter Huber, a Swiss expert in Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, based on a statistical investigation of cuneiform astronomical tablets. This ayanamsha was calculated in by the American astronomy historian John P. Britton based on a statistical investigation of cuneiform astronomical tablets. It is an attempt to improve P.
Huber's work. John P. The introduction of the uniform zodiac", in Arch. He refers to the doctrine of the Kalapurusha which assigns the 12 zodiac signs to parts of the human body. The initial point of Aries is considered to correspond to the crown and Pisces to the feet of the cosmic human being. In addition, Chandra Hari notes that Mula has the advantage to be located near the galactic centre and to have "no proper motion".
Chandra Hari believes it defines the original Babylonian zodiac. As has been stated, the position of the galactic centre was not known to the ancient peoples. However, they were aware of the fact that the Milky Way crossed the ecliptic in this region of the sky. A few astrologers have started to fix a sidereal-like zodiac at the "galactic nodes", i. This kind of solution as well as ayanamshas oriented towards the galactic centre are obviously more convincing from a philosophical point of view, because the galaxy is the greater whole, within which our Sun and all visible stars move and exist.
Mardyks' view, this kind of ayanamsha or zodiac is not sidereal, but galactic. Nevertheless, it is as "fixed" as a sidereal zodiac. This ayanamsha was proposed in by the American astrologer Raymond Mardyks. A similar alignment occurs four times in a full precessional cycle. In Mardyks' view, this galactically aligned zodiac and ayanamsha opens astrology to higher "galactic" dimensions which are also considered in Maya astrology.
This ayanamsha or zodiac therefore has a "tropical" component. Mardyks calls it a "hybrid fixed-tropical, galactic zodiac". In astrological practice, Mardyks uses this galactic zodiac combined with the tropical zodiac along with the stars that compose the constellations. Mardyks' calculation is partially based on the galactic coordinate system that was defined by the International Astronomical Union in This ayanamsha differs from the Skydram ayanamsha by only 19 arc seconds.
The last two ayanamshas are based on a slightly outdated position of the galactic pole that was determined in According to more recent observations and calculations from the year , the galactic node with the ecliptic shifts by 3'11", and the "Galactic Alignment" is preponed to Mardyks still gives preference to the older galactic pole and plane, which are still used in astronomy as the standard galactic coordinate system.
AA, Oct. This ayanamsha was introduced by the American astrologer Ernst Wilhelm in He used a calculation of the galactic node by D. Koch from the year , which had a small error of 2 arc seconds. The current implementation of this ayanamsha is based on a new position of the Galactic pole found by Chinese astronomers in This ayanamsha was proposed by the American astrologer Robert DeLuce It is fixed at the birth of Jesus, theoretically at 1 January 1 AD.
DeLuce believes that this ayanamsha was also used in ancient India. He draws this conclusion from the fact that the important ancient Indian astrologer Varahamihira, who assumed the solstices on the ingresses of the Sun into sidereal Cancer and Capricorn, allegedly lived in the 1st century BC. This dating of Varahamihira has recently become popular under the influence of Hindu nationalist ideology Hindutva. However, historically, it cannot be maintained. Varahamihira lived and wrote in the 6th century AD.
This ayanamsha is based on the assumption that the Age of Aquarius will begin in the year This assumption is maintained by a theosophical society called Ageless Wisdom , and bases itself on a channelled message given in by a certain spiritual master called Djwhal Khul. The ancient Indian astronomer Aryabhata states that from the beginning of the Kaliyuga Kali Age in BCE until the spring equinox CE Aryabhata's own 23rd year of life exactly years have passed.
In addition, he assumes the spring equinox at the initial point of Aries. From this information, two possible ayanamshas can be derived. Either the zero point of the zodiac is assumed at the position of the equinoctial point on the spring equinox CE, or otherwise at the position of the mean Sun exactly sidereal years after the beginning of the Kaliyuga. More information on these ayanamshas is found in the General Documentation of the Swiss Ephemeris. These ayanamshas are calculated using the same methods as the two Aryabhata ayanamshas above, however using the year length of the Suryasiddhanta.
According to Govindasvamin n. This tradition probably goes back to an erroneous interpretation of Aryabhata's above-mentioned statement that he was 23 years old when had elapsed after the beginning of the Kaliyuga. These ayanamshas are not used in astrology. In fact, they are not ayanamshas at all, but astronomical sidereal coordinate systems, where the tropical ecliptic of the beginning of the year , , or is defined as a sidereal reference frame.
Ayanamshas are usually defined using the positions of certain fixed stars. The following fixed stars played an important role in the history of the zodiac:. Unfortunately, nobody can tell why any of these stars should be so important that it could be used as an anchor point for the zodiac. In addition, all these solutions are unattractive in that the fixed stars actually are not fixed forever, but have a small proper motion which over a long period of time such as several millennia, can result in a considerable change in position.
The appearance of the sky changes over long periods of time. In ' years, the constellation will look very different from now, and the nakshatras lunar mansions will get confused. For this reason, a zodiac defined by positions of stars is unfortunately not able to provide an everlasting reference frame.
Constellations of the zodiac around the year ' BC. If one were to travel back to that time, one could not easily recognise any of the constellations except Orion. Incidentally, this phenomenon not only challenges current definitions of ayanamsha, which anchor the zodiac at some fixed star, but also obviously proves that the zodiacal constellations either have no reality and are mere imagination or otherwise that they are a transient and perishable thing.
In addition, it is obvious that the astrological zodiac of 12 equal signs with all its wonderful internal logic and symmetry, if it is real at all and an everlasting archetype of the cycles of life, cannot derive its effectiveness from a random distribution of unrelated fixed stars, but must be based on something more stable and more fundamental. For such or also other reasons, some astrologers Raymond Mardyks, Ernst Wilhelm, Rafael Gil Brand, Nick Anthony Fiorenza have tried to redefine the sidereal zodiac using either the galactic centre or the node of the galactic equator with the ecliptic.
It is obvious that this kind of solution, which would not depend on the position of a single star anymore, could provide a philosophically meaningful and very stable definition of the zodiac. Fixed stars would be allowed to change their positions over very long periods of time, but the zodiac could still be considered fixed and "sidereal". Disregarding historical considerations for a moment, it would be philosophically convincing to define the sidereal zodiac relative to the galactic centre, around which our Sun and all visible stars circle.
Assuming the galactic centre here seems to make sense. Thus this ayanamsha is very close to the ayanamshas that are fixed at the star Revati. Another ayanamsha that is fixed at the galactic centre was proposed by the German-Spanish astrologer Rafael Gil Brand. To sum up, it seems that even if one agrees that the galactic centre should play an important role in the definition of the sidereal zodiac, nevertheless several different solutions remain possible. Since the Sun moves about the galactic centre, the galactic centre makes a small apparent motion, too, comparable to the fixed stars.
If one wanted a really fixed reference point, then one would have to fix the zodiac at the so-called International Celestial Reference System ICRS or the extragalactic radiation sources at which it is anchored. From a historical point of view, however, it must be noted that the galactic centre was discovered only in modern times and therefore certainly did not play any role, when the sidereal zodiac was first defined.
It was clearly influenced by the Babylonian Enuma Elis creation story. Holden, James Herschel. Higgins, William Henry Kessinger Publishing, facsimile reprint ; Scholar's Choice, facsimile reprint February 8, Hyginus c. The Myths of Hyginus. Including the Fabulae and the second book of the Poetica astronomica. University of Kansas Press, Fabulae consists of about three hundred brief and crudely told myths and celestial genealogies. Although the authorship of Astronomica is attributed to Hyginus, it is disputed, thus authorship is often referred to as Pseudo-Hyginus.
Astronomica is poetic astronomy about the myths associated with the Greco-Roman constellations. The star lists in the Astronomica are in exactly the same order as in Ptolemy's Almagest c. Jacobsen, Thorkild. Yale University Press, Professor Jacobsen was a renowned historian specializing in Assyriology and Sumerian literature. This is a culmination of his lifetime's work on Sumerian life and society. Jayne, Charles. Progressions and Directions. Kembhavi, Ajit K. King, Leonard William Enuma Elish is the Babylonian creation myth considered by scholars to be primary source material for the book of Genesis.
Cosimo Classics, , First published in Knobel, Edward Ball Koch-Westenholz, Ulla. Kramer, Samuel Noah. There are few scholars in the world qualified to write such a book, and certainly Kramer is one of them One of the most valuable features of this book is the quantity of texts and fragments which are published for the first time in a form available to the general reader. University of Chicago Press; Revised ed. University of Pennsylvania Press; 3rd ed. Sumerian Mythology.
- * Lahiri Ayanamsha.
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University of Pennsylvania Press; Revised ed. Krupp, E. Kunitzsch, Paul b. Kunitzsch, Paul and Smart, Tim. This fascinating work, long out of print, is considered to be the most authoritative English-language treatment of star names in use today. Starlore and Starwork in Babel Babylon. La Caille Lacaille , Nicolas Louis de. Coelum Australe Stelliferum. Nabu Press, October 1, Lambert, Wilfred G.
Babylonian Creation Myths Mesopotamian Civilizations. Le vocabulaire latin de l'Astronomie Three Volumes, French. Hay House, February 1, This is an excellent instructional book focusing on the main and core elements of Vedic astrology for the beginning Vedic astrologer. Lilly, William Christian Astrology Three Volumes in One.
Cosimo Classics, May 1, A guide to horary astrology, in which astrological charts are created to answer specific questions based on place and exact time. Written by the foremost astrologer in the s, it is still considered an authority on the subject today.
Magli, Giulio. Archaeoastronomy: Introduction to the Science of Stars and Stones. Major, John S. The Huainanzi has in recent years been recognized by scholars as one of the seminal works of Chinese thought at the beginning of the imperial era, a summary of the full flowering of early Taoist philosophy. This book presents a study of three key chapters of the Huainanzi, "The Treatise on the Patterns of Heaven," "The Treatise on Topography," and "The Treatise on the Seasonal Rules," which collectively comprise the most comprehensive extant statement of cosmological thinking in the early Han period.
SUNY Press, Mak, Bill M. Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, Vol. Manilius, Marcus author Five Books of Manilius. American Federation of Astrologers Inc. Manilius, Marcus author , Goold, G. P, editor and translator. Manilius: Astronomica. Manilius Green, Steven J. Forgotten Stars: Rediscovering Manilius' Astronomica. Ma'shar, Abu and al-Qabisi authors 8th Cen. Massey, Gerald.
Mathisen, David Warner. Star Myths of the World and how to interpret them. Beowulf Books, Vol.
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Mayo, Gretchen Will. Milbrath, Susan. Munitz, Milton K. Neugebauer, Otto. Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, and their transmission to the Hellenistic world. Dover Publications; 2nd edition, June 1, pages. Astronomical Journal, Vol. Neugebauer, Otto and Parker, Richard A.
Egyptian Astronomical Texts 4 Volumes. Noonan, George. Fixed Stars and Judicial Astrology. Olcott, William Tyler Star Lore: Myths, Legends, and Facts. Humphries, Rolfe translator Reed, Joseph D.
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Rolfe Humphries — also translated Virgil's Aeneid. Joseph D. Indiana University Press, April 13, recomended version. University of Virginia Online Library. Kline, Anthony S. Archidoxes of Magic. Nicolas Hays facsimile reprint of the edition. Kessinger Publishing facsimile reprint.
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Paracelsus, Theophrastus, Waite, Arthur Edward. Verity, Antony translator The Complete Odes. Powell, Robert and Treadgold, Peter. The Sidereal Zodiac. Powell, Robert and Dann Kevin. The Astrological Revolution. Ptolemy, Claudius Ptolemaeus. Toomer, G. Princeton University Press, Robson, Vivian. Rogers, John H. Origins of the ancient constellations: I.
The Mesopotamian traditions. Journal of the British Astronomical Association, vol. Origins of the ancient constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions. Rosenberg, Diana K. Ruggles, Clive L. Sahl bin Bishr Zahel and Masha'allah authors. Salaman, Clement, et al. Sesti, Giuseppe Maria. The glorious constellations: history and mythology. Small, Robert. Smith, George Adam The Chaldean Account of Genesis. Smith, William editor. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Tauris; 1 edition, September 15, A full account of the works as well as the lives of the Greek and Roman writers is included. Painters, sculptors, and architects are treated at considerable length and an account is given of all their works extant or of which there is any record in the ancient writers. Care has been taken to separate articles on mythological subjects from those of an historical nature Willmann-Bell, Inc. Pingree, David translator The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja.
Harvard University Press, Staal, Julius D. Stahl, Carl W. Sun, X. A reconstruction of the Chinese sky of two thousand years ago, based on analysis of the first star catalogue in China and other sources BCE. The Han sky, with five times more constellations than Ptolemy knew, reflects diverse human activities. The work of the three Han schools is comparable to Ptolemy's Almagest. Brill, New York, Sutton, Komilla.
The Essentials of Vedic Astrology. Personal Panchanga and the Five Sources of Light. The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, June 3, Tauris Academic Resource. Publisher: I. Tauris, 1st edition, September 15, Takra, KHM9 Andres. The Wisdom Of Sidereal Astrology. Theoi Greek Mythology gods and goddesses. Thompson, Gary D. Franz Kugler took over the work of assyriologist Joseph Epping after his death in Epping is acknowledged for initiating the study of cuneiform mathematical astronomical texts.
Kugler's works on Babylonian astronomical cuneiform inscriptions were first published in This is a historical account of Kugler and those invovled.
Early Mesopotamian Constellations: Sumerian constellations and star names? Three Initiates author. Tobey, Carl Payne Edited by Naomi C. Astrology of Inner Space. Naomi Bennett. Tucker, William J. Principles of Scientific Astrology, Turner, Patricia, and Coulter, Charles Russell. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. University Centre for Astrological Research C. An excelent resource for a variety of topics. Valens, Vettius. Gehrz, Andrea L.
Andrea Gehrz, Inc. Riley, Mark translator Vettius Valens, Anthology. Mark T. Vettius Valens PDF. Babylonian Astronomy. The Thirty-Six Stars. Viano, Maurizio. Sumerian is the most ancient language so far documented and remained for about three millennia the language of culture in Mesopotamia for its association with scribal education. With the end of the Old Babylonian period, Sumerian literary and lexical texts were disseminated to regions outside Mesopotamia White, Gavin.
Babylonian Star-Lore. Solaria Publications, London, , 3 edition, Norris, Ray P. The Astronomy of Aboriginal Australia. Morieson, John. Astronomy and Continuity: The Boorong Example.